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Graphene impedance quantum standard

Short Name: GIQS, Project Number: 18SIB07
Image showing a graphic of carbon molecules arranged into a graphene lattice
Graphic of carbon molecules arranged into a graphene lattice

Establishing SI linked quantum traceability by exploiting the potential of graphene

The marketability of electronic products relies on quantifications of voltage, resistance, and impedance. While the major metrology institutes offer ‘gold standard’ traceability for voltage and resistance, by applying Josephson (JE) and quantum Hall effects (QHE), calibrating impedance traceable to the QHE is costly. Cheaper routes to traceability for impedance quantities (ohm, farad, and henry), linked to the defining constants of the revised SI units, would boost supply chains by enabling affordable, traceable measurement services, by a broader range of providers.


The project established a new primary standard for impedance, linked to the revised SI Units, by exploiting quantum effects of graphene. Novel digital impedance measurement bridges combined with a simpler cooling method will result in a graphene-based quantum Hall resistance device. This will enable a cheaper and easier-to-operate primary standard, and more affordable and improved measurement services. The project also helped link other electrical units to the revised SI units, while new devices will become possible in the technology sector, for faster, more sensitive measurement methods.


Project website
Other Participants
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France)
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (Korea, Republic of)
National Institute of Metrology Thailand (Thailand)
Politecnico di Torino (Italy)


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