Different fuels emit different amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in relation to the energy they produce when burned.
Capturing CO2 can result in a negative CO2 emission. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the process of capturing waste CO2, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere. Usually the CO2 is captured from large point sources, such as cement factories or biomass power plants, and normally it is stored in an underground geological formation.
Purity specifications for carbon capture storage are currently being developed in gas quality standards but further efforts (developing analytical methods and Primary Reference Materials) are required before gas industries can verify the quality of their gas as specified in these standards. Carbon dioxide leaks from CCS infrastructure is a safety concern and can also lead to inaccuracies when monitoring losses of carbon dioxide in the process.
Specific measurement challenges for carbon dioxide are related to flow, gas composition, CRM and sampling and will be dealt with in an upcoming joint research project on decarbonisation within EURAMET's European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). Metrology here can also contribute to the development of standards for purity requirement for different applications for CO2.
Examples of relevant standards include:
- ISO/TR 27921
- EN 936: Chemicals used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. Carbon dioxide