ROCOF measurements: use cases, user requirements, and test waveforms

Improved measurements of rate-of-change of frequency has provided vital support to the smart grids of the future.

Image showing power lines and wind turbines in autumn sunlight

Coordinator: Paul Wright


One aim of this project is to first evaluate the problem of rate-of-change-of-frequency (ROCOF) measurement in the context of actual use cases. The use cases reflect the ‘wish list’ of accuracy and latency requirements from an end-user point of view. Additionally, the use cases imply expected and worst-case scenarios of power quality (PQ). Based upon the use case scenarios and expected PQ, a selection of representative test waveforms is defined and developed. This set of waveforms is used as signals supplied to candidate ROCOF-measuring algorithms/devices, both in simulation and hardware, in order to assess their performance. 

With input from stakeholders and based on up-to-date research, literature, and experience, the use case accuracy requirements are defined to a realistic and achievable accuracy performance, given the end-user latency requirement.  

The collection of use cases, with measurement requirements and waveform scenarios, is an essential pre-requisite for the characterisation of the ROCOF algorithms and the specification of ROCOF instrument architecture, performed in the remainder of the project.  

For more information, see  the project webpage >​​​​​​​> 


Parent project
Short Name:ROCOF,Project Number:15NRM04

Participating Euramet NMIs and DIs

CMI (Czechia)

NPL (United Kingdom)

VSL (Netherlands)

Other participants

University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

Project type
Joint Research Project
2016 - 2019