Exploring alternative materials to graphene for an improved industrial quantum standard.
The EC has identified key emerging technologies with transformative potential for industry. Graphene and related 2D materials are prominent examples and the EC’s Graphene Flagship aims to take these materials from the laboratory into society.
The Quantum Hall resistance standard (QHRS) is a universal standard for electrical resistance but requires demanding experimental conditions such as high magnetic fields and cryogenic temperatures. Graphene’s 2D hexagonal-lattice structure imparts the electrical properties required for a more practical QHRS. However, its properties depend on the substrate on which it is deposited and the inability to grow large areas has limited its use. Materials such as ‘single layered two-dimensional Dirac covalent- and metal- organic frameworks’ (2D-COF/MOFs) are alternative QHRS candidates but have not been characterised to the level for use in metrology or in industrial products.
This project will develop graphene-like hexagonal structured 2D-COF/MOFs from organic ligands and the chemistry, morphology and electronic properties ‘tuned’ in an atomically precise and scalable manner. The 2D-COF/MOFs will then be characterised in relation to sample area and the substrate used prior to integration into QHRS devices. Measurements will then be performed to compare the performance of these to graphene and other materials used in QHRS. By benchmarking the use of 2D-COF/MOFs as a replacement for graphene this project will take the first steps to realising the use of these materials as primary electrical standards, supporting the aims of the Graphene flagship. It will also potentially impact on industries linked with 2D materials including solar energy conversion, semi-conductors and optoelectronics.