Quantum resistance metrology based on graphene

Short Name: GraphOhm, Project Number: SIB51
Modern Workstation inside an Industrial Building

Portable quantum resistance standards: Making quantum resistance standards more widely available in industry


Resistors are used to manage the current flow in many electrical systems, whilst accurate resistance measurements underpin the precise control needed for sophisticated electronics and sensors. Highly accurate NMI resistance standards based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) are used to link industrial instruments that characterise electronic components to the Ohm - the SI unit of resistance.

 

When electrical current passes through a magnetic field at right angles to the current’s flow a voltage difference is generated across the conductor. This is called the Hall Effect. In very high magnetic fields and at extremely low temperatures, two dimensional structures produce the quantum version of the Hall Effect. Two-dimensional graphene has the potential to simplify the experimental conditions needed by today’s NMI QHE standards. New methods for manufacturing suitable graphene, and ways to reliably characterise its performance are required before graphene can be considered for precise NMI resistance standards.

 

This project investigated the use of graphene to create more practical resistance standards.

 

The Project:

 

• Developed methods for fabricating graphene suitable for use as a resistance standard, by growing graphene films on a substrate, and developed approaches to confirm its quality

 

• Confirmed graphene produced the QHE at higher temperatures and lower magnetic fields than existing resistance standard materials, whilst also identifying the further work needed to improve flow of electrons

 

• Demonstrated the potential for using graphene for impedance standards, the equivalent to resistance for AC current, which can confirm the performance of AC sensors and electronics such as touch screens

 

• Developed a room temperature instrument for scaling QHE resistance values, providing an alternative to cryogenic current comparators which rely on liquid helium to create very low temperatures.

 

As a result of this project, more European NMIs can now fabricate resistance grade graphene, and easier to use resistance standards have been developed. These are increasing the availability of highly precise resistance calibrations across the EU. Shortening the resistance calibration chain and bringing high quality resistance standards closer to industrial users will help innovation in electronic devices and supports increased competitiveness.

 

The project’s manufacturing method for high-quality large-area graphene wafers is proving valuable for developing new graphene technologies, such as sensors for small magnetic fields, as well as those for radiation and gas detection.

 

Simpler resistance standards, and in the future potential impedance standards, will spur innovation in a wide range of technologies where the electrical resistance of materials is important, including sensors, electronics and communications.

 

Coordinator: Franz Josef Ahlers (PTB)

For more information, please contact the EURAMET Management Support Unit

Phone: +44 20 8943 6666

E-mail: empir.msu@euramet.org

 

Project website
Publications
Towards a cryogen-free table-top primary resistance standard
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Characterization of HMDS treated CVD Graphene
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

AC quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

First ac measurements of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene
2016

29th Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2014)

Comparison Between GaAs and Graphene QHR Standards for Resistance Realisation at SP
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Convenient Graphene-Based Quantum Hall Resistance Standards
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Experimental Study of Carrier Density Tuning in Epitaxial Graphene QHR Devices
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Fabrication of graphene quantum Hall resistance standard in a cryogen-freee table-top system
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Magnetocapacitance and Dissipation Factor of Epitaxial Graphene Hall Bars
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Precision Measurements of Quantum Hall Resistance Plateau in Doping-Controlled Graphene Device
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Testing the new generation of low-frequency current comparators
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Tests of Series Quantum Hall Arrays Based on Epitaxial Graphene
2016

Digest on Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM2016)

Low contact resistance in epitaxial graphene devices for quantum metrology
2015

Low contact resistance in epitaxial graphene devices

Epitaxial graphene on SiC: Modification of structural and electron transport properties by substrate pretreatment
2015

Epitaxial graphene on SiC: modification of structural and electron transport properties by substrate pretreatment

Operation of graphene quantum Hall resistance standard in a cryogen-free table-top system
2015

Operation of graphene quantum Hall resistance standard in a cryogen-free table-top system

A prototype of RK=200 quantum Hall array resistance standard on epitaxial graphene
2015

A prototype of RK=200 quantum Hall array resistance standard on epitaxial graphene

Structural, optical and electrostatic properties of single and fewlayers MoS2: effect of substrate
2015

Structural, optical and electrostatic properties of single and fewlayers MoS2: effect of substrate

High mobility epitaxial graphene devices via aqueous-ozone processing
2015

High mobility epitaxial graphene devices via aqueous-ozone processing

Disorder induced Dirac-point physics in epitaxial graphene from temperature-dependent magneto-transport measurements
2015

Disorder induced Dirac-point physics in epitaxial graphene from temperature-dependent magneto-transport measurements

Ultrasensitive NO 2 Gas Sensor Based on Epitaxial Graphene
2015

Ultrasensitive NO 2 Gas Sensor Based on Epitaxial Graphene

Measuring the Thickness of Flakes of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Using the Change in Zero-Contrast Wavelength of Optical Contrast
2015

Measuring the Thickness of Flakes of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Using the Change in Zero-Contrast Wavelength of Optical Contrast

Towards Quantum Resistance Metrology Based on Graphene
2014

The EMRP Project GraphOhm - Towards Quantum Resistance Metrology Based on Graphene

Dissipative quantum Hall effect in polycrystalline CVD graphene
2014

29th Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2014)

Graphene metrology
2014

29th Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2014)

CVD Graphene for Electrical Quantum Metrology
2014

29th Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2014),

A Low-Frequency Current Comparator For Precision Resistance Measurements
2014

A Low-Frequency Current Comparator For Precision Resistance Measurements

Digitally assisted coaxial bridge for automatic quantum Hall effect measurements at audio frequencies
2014

29th Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2014)

Breakdown of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene
2014

Breakdown of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene

Hot carrier relaxation of Dirac fermions in bilayer epitaxial graphene
2014

Hot carrier relaxation of Dirac fermions in bilayer epitaxial graphene

Other Participants
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (Korea, Republic of)