An Essential Climate Variable (ECV) is a physical, chemical or biological variable that critically contributes to the characterisation of the Earth’s climate. ECVs include water vapour in the atmosphere, surface and deep sea temperature, ocean salinity, air temperature, precipitation and soil moisture. Prior to this project, long-term, high-quality observations of these variables did not exist, yet they are vital as society becomes increasingly affected by climate change.
This project investigated the performance of sensors used to monitor climate variables under different conditions and produced new measurement methods, techniques and standards. The results will improve the monitoring of essential climate variables, which will benefit European industries such as agriculture, energy, and transport, and reduce the threat to public health.