Case Studies

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Six pictures showing a human brain scan. Three images in upper row showing black and white pictures of the brain and below these the corresponding EPT images in green with orange indicating tissue sub-types

Quantifying the uncertainty of Electric Properties Tomography in medical imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic, mainly qualitative, technique used to visualise the soft tissues of a patient. The application of a strong magnetic field causes the protons in a patient’s hydrogen atoms to align with it. Radiofrequency pulses are then used to force the protons to move out of and back into alig...

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Image showing that every measurement has a degree of uncertainty

Advancing the evaluation of measurement uncertainty

Measurements underpin almost all areas of modern life, including trade, industrial manufacture, environment and health. However, no measurement is perfect — factors such as the instrument type, operator, measurement method or the environment can affect the returned results. All these factors combine to produce a ‘measurement un...

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Image showing the Front and back of a luminous Intensity Standard type LIS-A

A new calibration standard for solid-state lighting

Around 12% of electricity consumption in the world is used for lighting. More efficient systems have the potential of allowing Europe to save up to 34 TWh of electricity by 2030, reducing CO2 emissions by 7 million tonnes per year. Incandescent lights – where electricity flowing through a thin metal filament, such as tungsten, ...

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Image showing a shiny, wave of gold

Improving the measurement of gloss

The EU accounts for around 15 % of the world’s international trade in goods. Purchases are heavily influenced by conscious and subconscious visual cues which we relate as ‘quality’ in a product. A poor finish on a car, for example, may cause paint to develop an ‘orange peel’ look, eliciting a negative response in a buyer. This ...

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Artists impression showing a close up of three pale DNA strands against a dark blue background. The centre strand is being impacted and damaged by a bright beam of light

Simulating the effectiveness of radiotherapy at the nanometre scale

One in two people will develop cancer in their lifetime. Radiotherapy, using external sources of radiation, is a common treatment approach. This includes photon sources, such as x-rays and γ-rays, and particles, such as electrons, protons, and carbon ions. Radiation doses must be carefully calculated – too high a level and heal...

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New reference material for light scatter-based sizing of extracellular vesicles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological nanoparticles actively released by cells, comprising of an outer lipid membrane, and containing markers indicative of the cell of origin, and housing an inner aqueous core. Most EVs are 100 nm in diameter or less but can range in size from 30 nm to a few micrometres. EVs are found in ...

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